99 Animals That Start with E

Illustration with different animal species and text saying animals that start with E

The world is full of beautiful animals that fall under every letter of the alphabet. From the tiniest insects to the largest mammals, there’s no shortage of creatures on this planet to learn about.

So, let’s take a look at many of the animal species that start with the letter E. Some might be familiar, but you could also discover some new favorite animals!

List of Animals That Start with E

Here are 99 animal species that start with the letter E.

1. Eared Dove

Eared dove on tree branch
  • Scientific Name: Zenaida auriculata
  • Habitat: Across South America
  • Size: About 9.4 inches long
  • Diet: Seeds

These birds are the most widespread and abundant doves in South America. They most eat seeds they find on the ground, but they may eat items dropped by humans, such as bread. When they’re not feeding, they hang out in flocks. The flocks don’t migrate, but they’re constantly on the move, traveling from one roosting area to another. People sometimes hunt these birds, but it hasn’t affected the population numbers at all.

2. Eared Quetzal

Eared quetzal on branch
  • Scientific Name: Euptilotis neoxenus
  • Habitat: Pine forests in mountains of western Mexico and southwestern United States
  • Size: 13 to 14 inches long
  • Diet: Insects, fruit, small lizards

Eared quetzals are a rare and elusive sight for birdwatchers, especially since they get spooked easily. These birds spend most of their time perched on a branch, searching for food. When they see a fruit or animal they’d like to hunt, they’ll fly over to it and hover above it as they grab it with their beak. They lay beautiful blue eggs, which they usually keep in nests inside dead trees.

3. East Caucasian Tur

East Caucasian Tur
  • Scientific Name: Capra cylindricornis
  • Habitat: The eastern half of the Greater Caucasus Mountains
  • Size: 110 to 175 pounds
  • Diet: Grass, leaves

These mammals are wild goats that are highly adaptable to different weather conditions. They have long, curved horns, but the males’ horns are usually over 20 inches longer than the females’ horns. While their horns look like they would slow them down, these creatures can still run somewhat fast at about 7.5 miles per hour. The color of this breed’s coat changes based on the season. In summer, their fur is described as rusty brown, but in winter, it’s closer to chestnut brown.

4. Eastern Barred Bandicoot

Eastern barred bandicoot among grass
  • Scientific Name: Perameles gunnii
  • Habitat: Forests and grasslands of Australia
  • Size: About 1.5 pounds
  • Diet: Roots, berries, insects, worms

These small mammals dig funnels in the dirt to search for invertebrates to prey on. Female eastern barred bandicoots have pouches on their backs so dirt won’t harm young bandicoots when the moms are digging. If they feel threatened, these critters can run up to 15 miles per hour to escape predators. They have webbing between their second and third toes to help them jump as far as three feet. This webbing is also present in kangaroos.

5. Eastern Bluebird

Eastern bluebird on branch
  • Scientific Name: Sialia sialis
  • Habitat: Across North and Central America
  • Size: 6.3 to 8.3 inches
  • Diet: Insects, snails, spiders, worms

The eastern bluebird population is thriving because these birds have adapted to survive in all types of habitats, even in areas near humans. Eastern bluebirds are incredible hunters that can spot insects in tall grass over 50 yards away. When they hunt, they drop straight down onto the prey from their perch, similar to how a cat would pounce on a rodent. Males become highly territorial during breeding seasons and may defend a territory of up to two acres.

6. Eastern Brown Snake

Eastern brown snake close-up
  • Scientific Name: Pseudonaja textilis
  • Habitat: Open landscapes of Australia
  • Size: 5 to 7 feet long
  • Diet: Frogs, reptiles, rodents

This snake’s dull colors might not make it seem dangerous, but these snakes have some of the most toxic venom in the world. They’re the most venomous snakes in Australia. A bite from one of these snakes could potentially cause intense pain, paralysis, hemorrhaging, respiratory failure, or cardiac arrest. Luckily, these dangerous reptiles rarely interact with humans. They’re fast snakes that can move up to 12 miles per hour to strike their prey.

7. Eastern Chanting Goshawk

Eastern chanting goshawk taking off
  • Scientific Name: Melierax poliopterus
  • Habitat: Dry areas of eastern Africa
  • Size: 38 to 43 inch wingspan
  • Diet: Lizards, birds, rodents, large insects

Eastern chanting goshawks usually sit on any exposed perches they find, which can even include camel humps. While they’re most active during the day, they sometimes perform courtship aerial displays at night during mating season. The flight display consists of the two birds moving in circles while vocalizing. They have many different calls, but they get their name because they often make repetitive sounds similar to chanting.

8. Eastern Chipmunk

Eastern chipmunk eating acorn
  • Scientific Name: Tamias striatus
  • Habitat: Across eastern United States and Southern Canada
  • Size: 10 to 12 inches long
  • Diet: Nuts, acorns, insects, berries

Eastern chipmunks spend a lot of time gathering food. They can collect up to 165 acorns in one day. Chipmunks often used their cheek pouches to carry lots of food back to their nest. Their cheek pouches are so stretchy that they can expand up to three times the size of their head. Instead of hibernating in the winter, they go into a state called “torpor,” where their heart rate and body temperature drop to help them survive the winter.

9. Eastern Coral Snake

Eastern coral snake on grass
  • Scientific Name: Micrurus fulvius
  • Habitat: Wooded areas of southeastern United States
  • Size: 2 to 3 feet long
  • Diet: Lizards, frogs, other snakes

Eastern coral snakes are some of the most beautiful snakes in the United States, but they’re also the most dangerous. These snakes are shy and like to hide, but if they bite, they can paralyze their victim. Their venom is used to paralyze their prey before killing it. They have small fangs, so when they bite, they chew a little bit to inject the venom. Coral snakes will hunt almost any small animals, including other coral snakes if the opportunity presents itself.

10. Eastern Cottontail

Eastern cottontail on dirt path
  • Scientific Name: Sylvilagus floridanus
  • Habitat: From southern Canada to northern South America
  • Size: 1.8 to 3 pounds
  • Diet: Clovers, grass, shrubs, sedges

While eastern cottontails look like cute pet bunnies, they’re wild animals that prefer to keep their distance from humans. They’re solitary, nocturnal, and highly territorial. Their large feet allow them to jump up to 15 feet to escape predators. When hopping, they may move in a zig-zag pattern to confuse the animal chasing them. If they sense danger, they can stand on their hind legs to search for threats.

11. Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake

Eastern diamondback rattlesnake about to strike
  • Scientific Name: Crotalus adamanteus
  • Habitat: Scrublands and coastal forests of southeastern United States
  • Size: 2 to 8 feet long
  • Diet: Rabbits, rodents, birds

Eastern diamondback rattlesnakes are the largest venomous snakes in the United States. They can grow up to 8 feet long and weigh up to 10 pounds. These snakes have dark-colored scales to help them blend in with the ground and ambush prey. If one of these rattlesnakes feels threatened, they’ll rarely back down. Instead, they’ll curve their body in to an “S” shape to indicate that they’re ready to attack. About 10 to 20% of untreated bites on humans end in death.

12. Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog

Eastern Tree Frog on leaf
  • Scientific Name: Litoria fallax
  • Habitat: Coastal wetlands in eastern Australia
  • Size: About 2.5 centimeters long
  • Diet: Small insects

Eastern dwarf tree frogs are usually found in large groups near swamps and ponds in Australia. Unlike other frog species, they’re capable of laying their eggs during any time of year. They always lay their eggs near the water’s surface so the tadpoles will enter the water as soon as they hatch. Some people in Australia refer to these amphibians as “lost frogs” because they sometimes appear near shops that aren’t by their usual habitat.

13. Eastern Fence Lizard

Eastern fence lizard on log
  • Scientific Name: Sceloporus undulatas
  • Habitat: Forests and grasslands of the United States and Mexico
  • Size: 4 to 7 inches long
  • Diet: Insects, arachnids, arthropods

These common lizards are beneficial to humans because they eat lots of pesky insects. They spend most of their time climbing, so they can scurry up trees and fences to avoid predators. They’re most active when it’s sunny outside. They’re usually very solitary, but a group of these lizards is called a “lounge.” Males can be easily distinguished from females because they have a bright blue belly. Females can have blue bellies too, but they’re usually fainter and not very noticeable.

14. Eastern Glass Lizard

Eastern glass lizard on the ground
  • Scientific Name: Ophisaurus ventralis
  • Habitat: Damp areas of the southeastern United States
  • Size: 18 to 43 inches long
  • Diet: Insects, worms, rodents, small lizards

This reptile is a legless lizard, but it’s not a snake. Glass lizards differ from snakes because they have movable eyelids and ear holes while snakes have neither. Some may form unusable hind legs, but it’s rare. Even though most of this species’ body is made up of a tail, these creatures can still lose their tails when threatened like some other lizards. Instead of slithering like a snake, glass lizards push off objects with their sides.

15. Eastern Gorilla

Eastern gorilla eating cabbage
  • Scientific Name: Gorilla berengei
  • Habitat: Tropical forests of central Africa
  • Size: 450 to 500 pounds
  • Diet: Leaves, seeds, herbs

Eastern gorillas are known as the largest primates in the world. They’re intelligent animals that can perform lots of human-like tasks, such as peeling fruits with their hands. They also have an intricate way of communicating that uses at least 25 different sounds. Every gorilla has a unique nose print, similar to human fingerprints. Eastern gorillas that are over 12 years old start to develop gray patches of hair on their backs, which is why they’re called “silverbacks.”

16. Eastern Grey Kangaroo

Eastern gray kangaroo in the wild
  • Scientific Name: Macropus giganteus
  • Habitat: Open woodlands of Tasmania and eastern Australia
  • Size: 40 to 150 pounds
  • Diet: Grass, herbs, shrubs

Like most kangaroos, eastern grey kangaroos have powerful legs that can propel them forward at impressive speeds. For short periods, they can move up to 40 miles per hour. If they’re traveled for longer, they can maintain a speed of up to 12 miles per hour. These mammals usually avoid the hottest times of day by resting in the shade when the sun is out. When they’re alarmed, they make clucking sounds, which is most common in aggressive males.

17. Eastern Hercules Beetle

Eastern Hercules beetle on pavement
  • Scientific Name:  Dynastes tityus
  • Habitat: Across the eastern United States
  • Size: Up to 7 inches long
  • Diet: Rotten fruit, rotten wood

This species is one of the largest insects in the United States. Males have horns on the tops of their heads that are used for competing with other males during mating season. The horns take up about 1/3 of their body lengths, so females are small since they don’t have a horn. Both the larvae and adults primarily eat rotten food. The larvae prefer rotting wood while adults seek out fruit instead. So, they’re not considered pests and don’t need to be controlled.

18. Eastern Kelpfish

  • Scientific Name: Chironemus marmoratus
  • Habitat: Southwestern Pacific Ocean near Australia
  • Size: About 16 inches long
  • Diet: Mollusks, crabs, sea urchins

The eastern kelpfish, also known as the large kelpfish, can be found up to 100 feet below the water’s surface. Yet, most of them stay near shallow waters. They usually swim close to the sea floor, and they’re constantly moving. They have a small, pointed mouth and large pectoral fins. Their scales have a unique color pattern that can vary between gray, brown, white, green, and pink blotches.

19. Eastern Kingbird

Eastern kingbird perched
  • Scientific Name: Tyrannus tyrannus
  • Habitat: Open spaces in North, Central, and South America
  • Size: 7.7 to 9.1 inches long
  • Diet: Insects, fruit

Eastern kingbirds perch on trees or fences while they seek out prey. When they spot flying insects, they fly after them and capture the critters in mid-air. They usually swallow the insects whole so they don’t need to land to eat them. The birds spend most of their time in South America, but they migrate to North America to breed. During migration, they start eating fruit more often rather than only insects.

20. Eastern Marsh Harrier

Eastern Marsh Harrier perched on branch
  • Scientific Name: Circus spilonotus
  • Habitat: Near dense marsh vegetation in eastern Asia
  • Size: 44 to 54 inch wingspan
  • Diet: Birds, small mammals, frogs

When hunting, the eastern marsh harrier flies low to the ground with its wings in a V-shape. It scoops up almost any small animals it can find. These birds have some territorial tendencies, so they can be dangerous to humans and other animals. Despite looking tough, they most commonly make a “mewing” sound to communicate with each other. They only have one partner for life, and they build their nests in reed beds.

21. Eastern Mole

Eastern mole in sand
  • Scientific Name: Scalopus aquaticus
  • Habitat: Fields and open woodlands of eastern North America
  • Size: 5.7 to 7.2 inches
  • Diet: Termites, grubs, slugs, millipedes

Like similar mole species, these small mammals can’t see well, but they can detect light and sense vibrations. So, they can move backward just as fast as they can move forward. They have short legs with broad feet and claws that allow them to dig rapidly. They can dig more than one yard in an hour. A single mole can dig about 20 yards in one day. 99% of an eastern mole’s life is spent underground making tunnels.

22. Eastern Mosquitofish

Eastern mosquitofish swimming near rocks
  • Scientific Name: Gambusia holbrooki
  • Habitat: Freshwater streams of southeastern United States
  • Size: 1.5 to 2.5 inches long
  • Diet: Insects, insect larvae, algae

This species got its name because these fish regularly feed on mosquito larvae to help control mosquito populations. The males usually seek out one prey type while females are happy to eat whatever they can find. These fish are native to the United States, but they’ve become an invasive species in certain areas of Europe and Australia. These tiny fish thrive in warm waters, reaching 88 to 95 degrees Fahrenheit. They can also survive at pH levels that would kill other fish species.

23. Eastern Gray Squirrel

Eastern gray squirrel eating nut
  • Scientific Name: Sciurus carolinensis
  • Habitat: Woodlands of eastern United States and Canada
  • Size: 9 to 12 inches long
  • Diet: Nuts, acorns, seeds, insects, bird eggs

Each season, eastern gray squirrels hide thousands of pieces of food, usually underground. They use their memory and sense of smell to locate the food when they need it. They’re solitary creatures that only like to collect food for themselves. These squirrels will not hesitate to steal buried food from other squirrels. So, if an eastern gray squirrel suspects that one rodent is watching them, they may pretend to bury food in front of them and bury the real food elsewhere.

24. Eastern Green Mamba

Eastern Green Mamba
  • Scientific Name: Dendroaspis angusticeps
  • Habitat: Southeastern coastlines of Africa
  • Size: 6 to 7 feet long
  • Diet: Rodents, frogs, lizards, eggs

These bright green snakes never stop growing. They grow the quickest during their first year, but they continue to grow slowly until the day they die. These snakes spend most of their time in trees, so the green scales help them blend in with leaves. Eastern green mambas have some venom, but it’s not as potent as the venom of similar species. They use their venom to subdue prey and digest it easier, but if a human gets bit, they may experience swelling, nausea, and dizziness.

25. Eastern Indigo Snake

Eastern indigo snake in wood chips
  • Scientific Name: Drymarchon couperi
  • Habitat: Across Southeastern United States
  • Size: About 8 feet long
  • Diet: Rodents, birds, lizards, eggs

Eastern indigo snakes are known as the longest snakes native to North America. While these snakes aren’t venomous, they will chase down prey and subdue them with force. However, these snakes aren’t harmful to humans. They’re more likely to run away or release a foul-smelling musk than attack. Some scientists believe that these reptiles are somewhat immune to rattlesnake venom because they have observed them surviving rattlesnake bites.

26. Eastern Newt

Eastern newt as red eft
  • Scientific Name: Notophthalmus viridescens
  • Habitat: Marshes and lakes of Canada and United States
  • Size: 2.5 to 5 inches long
  • Diet: Insects, crustaceans, mollusks, small fish

Eastern newts are an unusual amphibian species because they have four unique life stages while most newts only have three. From an egg, they turn into aquatic larvae, and then into a red/orange land-dwelling adult. This adult stage is known as the red eft. Their bright-colored skin warns predators that they’re toxic. Then, when they’re fully mature, these newts return to the water and live aquatic lives again. In the final aquatic stage, they have olive-green skin that’s smoother than the red eft’s skin.

27. Eastern Phoebe

Eastern phoebe sitting on branch
  • Scientific Name: Sayornis phoebe
  • Habitat: Across southeastern United States and northern Mexico
  • Size: 0.6 to 0.7 ounces
  • Diet: Insects, berries, spiders, ticks

Eastern phoebes wag their tails when they sit on a branch, which is what makes them stand out from other flycatchers. As they sit on a branch, they wait for insects to fly by so they can capture them. When hunting, they chase down the prey and then return to the same branch. These birds are almost always found alone, except for during breeding season, when they can be found in pairs. They get their name because their chirps sound like they’re saying “fee-bee.”

28. Eastern Quoll

Eastern Quoll on log
  • Scientific Name: Dasyurus viverrinus
  • Habitat: Forests of southeast Australia
  • Size: 1.5 to 2.5 pounds
  • Diet: Spiders, cockroaches, grasshoppers

When eastern quolls are born, they’re no bigger than the size of ice pellets that fall during sleet. They’re nocturnal animals, but they sometimes come out during the day to sunbathe. While they’re capable of climbing, they prefer to spend most of their time on the ground. Groups of quolls often establish a specific area to do their business, sort of like a public bathroom. They share some cat-like behaviors, but they’re actually most closely related to Tasmanian devils.

29. Eastern Racer

Eastern racer snake face
  • Scientific Name: Coluber constrictor
  • Habitat: Open grasslands of North America and Central America
  • Size: 25 to 75 inches long
  • Diet: Rodents, frogs, toads, lizards

Eastern racers can move up to four miles per hour. It might not sound fast compared to other animals, but racers are some of the fastest snakes out there. They can even slither up trees. These snakes aren’t venomous, but they can still bite if handled. If threatened, they’ll bite with their sharp teeth repeatedly and release a foul substance before slithering away. They might seem frightening to humans, but they’re beneficial because they consume many pests.

30. Eastern Rat Snake

Eastern rat snake on the ground
  • Scientific Name: Pantherophis alleghaniensis
  • Habitat: Across eastern United States
  • Size: 3.5 to 7 feet long
  • Diet: Rodents, birds, bird eggs

Some people call the eastern rat snake the “chicken snake” because these reptiles are capable of swallowing chicken eggs whole. However, they also catch rodents, so their diets have benefits and downsides for humans. These snakes aren’t venomous, but they will puff up their heads and release a foul odor to make predators think they’re venomous. They don’t need venom because their bites can cut off the blood flow to their prey’s brain without it.

31. Eastern Screech Owl

Eastern screech owl blending in with tree
  • Scientific Name: Megascops asio
  • Habitat: Woodlands of the eastern United States
  • Size: 19 to 24 inch wingspan
  • Diet: Beetles, moths, crickets

Screeching isn’t the only sound these owls make. They can make hoots, chuckles, and barks too. However, when you hear them screech, that means they’re likely defending their nests. These birds stay in the same area year-round, so they will store uneaten prey items in tree crevices to save for later. They rarely glide or hover, but instead, they usually make lots of sudden movements when flying to avoid running into trees.

32. Eastern Spadefoot

Eastern spadefoot hiding in plants
  • Scientific Name: Scaphiopus holbrookii
  • Habitat: Sandy soil in the eastern United States
  • Size: 1.75 to 3 inches
  • Diet: Termits, spiders, worms, insect larvae

These amphibians spend most of their lives burrowed underground. They’re most likely to come out of the dirt during heavy rain, and during that time, they usually breed in wetlands. Females can lay up to 2,500 eggs at a time, and the tadpoles can grow faster than those of other species. While many tadpoles take around 14 weeks to turn into frogs or toads, eastern spadefoot tadpoles can grow up in only 4 weeks. Some people who hold these toads have allergic reactions and claim the amphibians smell like peanut butter.

33. Eastern Spotted Skunk

Eastern spotted skunk hiding under log
  • Scientific Name: Spilogale putorius
  • Habitat: From Canada to northeastern Mexico
  • Size: 1 to 4 pounds
  • Diet: Insects, carrion, eggs, small mammals

Eastern spotted skunks prefer to eat insects, but they will eat anything they can find if insects aren’t available. They’re the only skunks that can climb trees, and they’ll often do so to knock down beehives to get honey. If they find a bug with a defensive scent, they will roll the prey around on the ground until it uses up the scent. These skunks spray a musky, oily substance that looks amber. If they spray an object, it may take two to four months for the smell to go away completely.

34. Eastern Tailed-Blue

Eastern tailed-blue butterfly on plant
  • Scientific Name: Cupido comyntas
  • Habitat: Across eastern North America and Central America
  • Size: 3/4 to 1 inch wingspan
  • Diet: Cow vetch, clover, wild pea, alfalfa

The males of this butterfly species have beautiful vibrant blue wings while the females are a dull gray/blue color. When they close their wings, they appear white with black spots. They can be found in all types of habitats, but they prefer to stay in meadows and other open areas. The females lay their eggs on flower buds so the larvae can eat the flowers when they hatch.

35. Eastern Triangular Butterflyfish

Eastern triangular butterflyfish swimming
  • Scientific Name: Chaetodon baronessa
  • Habitat: Across the eastern Indian Ocean
  • Size: Up to 6.2 inches long
  • Diet: Polyps of the tubular Acropora coral

Eastern triangular butterflyfish almost exclusively feed on tubular Acropora coral. They have thin hair-like teeth to pick out small organisms on the coral that most animals can’t access. Some people try to keep these fish in captivity, but it can be difficult to find an alternate food source that’s suitable for them. In the wild, they usually swim around in pairs and can be territorial towards unfamiliar fish.

36. Eastern Whipbird

Eastern whipbird on log
  • Scientific Name: Psophodes olivaceus
  • Habitat: Wet habitats along the eastern coast of Australia
  • Size: 10 to 12 inches
  • Diet: Insects

The eastern whipbird gets its name from the unique sounds it makes. The males make a sound similar to a whip cracking, and then females quickly follow with a “choo choo” sound. Both the males and females are known to be territorial, and mating pairs will defend their territory together. When building a nest, these birds create a cup-shaped structure out of sticks, twigs, roots, and stems. The nests are built low to the ground in dense vegetation.

37. Eastern Yellow Robin

Eastern yellow robin on tree branch
  • Scientific Name: Eopsaltria australis
  • Habitat: Forests of eastern Australia
  • Size: About 6 inches long
  • Diet: Ants, beetles, spiders

The appearance of this robin isn’t much different from the American robin other than having a bright yellow belly. These birds communicate with each other using high-pitched bell sounds. Their small size makes it difficult for them to fly long distances, but they sometimes migrate to lower areas in the winter. When hunting, these birds often pounce on insects from low perches.

38. Echidna

Echidna resting feet on log
  • Scientific Name: Tachyglossus Aculeatus
  • Habitat: Dry forests in Australia
  • Size: 9 to 15 pounds
  • Diet: Ants, termites

Echidnas are commonly called “spiny anteaters” because ants and termites are their favorite insects to snack on. They’re the only other mammals besides platypuses that can lay eggs. These unusual critters are suspected to be the oldest mammals that are still alive today since their evolution dates back to the time of dinosaurs. They also have the lowest body temperature of all mammals, which is usually between 82 and 95 degrees Fahrenheit.

39. Eclectus Parrot

Pair of eclectus parrots
  • Scientific Name: Eclectus roratus
  • Habitat: Rainforests on the Solomon Islands through New Guinea
  • Size: 12 to 14.5 inches
  • Diet: Fruits, vegetables, other plants

These birds are beloved due to their vibrant colors, but sadly, inhumane pet sales have decreased their population. The males are easily distinguishable from females because males have mostly green feathers while females are red. Due to these distinct differences, the two sexes were thought to be two different species until the 20th century. Female parrots are very protective over their eggs and will protect their nesting trees even if it puts their lives at risk.

40. Ecuadorian Hillstar

Ecuadorian hillstar landing on plant
  • Scientific Name: Oreotrochilus chimborazo
  • Habitat: High-altitude grasslands in the Andes
  • Size: About 4.7 inches long
  • Diet: Nectar, insects, spiders

The Ecuadorian hillstar is a large species of hummingbird. When these birds find food, they don’t hover like other hummingbird species. Instead, they search for food on the ground. They are found at high altitudes in the Andes Mountains, between 11,500 and 17,100 feet. Since the tops of the mountains face extreme weather conditions, the birds build their nests in enclosed spaces. They stay in their nests all night to keep warm.

41. Edible Frog

Edible frog in pond
  • Scientific Name: Pelophylax kl. esculentus
  • Habitat: Woodlands swamps of central Europe
  • Size: 1.9 to 4.9 inches
  • Diet: Flies, moths, spiders

Edible frogs got their names because their legs are used as a culinary delicacy in France. These frogs are hybrids of pool frogs and marsh frogs, both of which are also native to Europe. The two species began breeding during the Ice Age when both types of frogs were isolated near each other. Despite being a mix of two frogs, edible frogs are fertile. These frogs spend most of their time sitting still in swamps so they can camouflage with their surroundings.

42. Edward’s Pheasant

Edward's pheasant close-up
  • Scientific Name: Lophura edwardsi
  • Habitat: Rainforests of Vietnam
  • Size: About 2 feet long
  • Diet: Insects, worms, fruits, vegetables

Edward’s pheasants are currently at risk of extinction due to habitat loss, but many zoos are making conservation efforts. They are only native to Vietnam, but they are adaptable and able to thrive in other areas. They do not attack humans, but if they feel threatened, they may defend themselves using the sharp claws on their feet. This species is named after French ornithologist Alphonse Milne-Edwards, who was the first to describe these birds.

43. Eel Catfish

group of eel catfish
  • Scientific Name: Channallabes apus
  • Habitat: Muddy swamps of central Africa
  • Size: Up to 13 inches long
  • Diet: Crustaceans, mollusks, worms

Eel catfish are an unusual species of fish that can breathe air using gill arches. These fish have specially adapted spines to allow them to hunt on both land and water. They’re able to propel their bodies out of the water to catch prey on land. They can hunt in the water by sucking water and food into their mouths as they swim. They’re schooling fish that usually travel in groups of 100 eel catfish.

44. Egyptian Cobra

Egyptian cobra with head upright
  • Scientific Name: Naja haje
  • Habitat: Dry regions of Northern Africa
  • Size: 5 to 8 feet long
  • Diet: Toads, bird eggs, small mammals

The forest cobra is the only cobra species in Africa that grows longer than the Egyptian cobra. Despite being large, Egyptian cobras are faster than most, allowing them to strike prey with ease. They have highly toxic venom that can even kill an elephant within a few hours of biting one. A bite can kill a person within 15 minutes. So, any humans that are bitten should seek emergency care immediately. Luckily, these reptiles are shy, so if you keep a distance, bites are unlikely.

45. Egyptian Goose

Egyptian goose standing on rock
  • Scientific Name: Alopochen aegyptiacus
  • Habitat: Open wetland areas of Africa
  • Size: 3 to 6 pounds
  • Diet: Insects, worms, frogs

The Egyptian goose has a confusing name because it’s actually a duck species. They have a heavy build, so they look more like a goose when flying. While they live in other areas of Africa besides Egypt, they got their name because they’re often featured in Egyptian art. They can be distinguished by the mask-like markings around their eyes. They can be friendly in captivity, but in the wild, they will act aggressively toward animals that get close to their nesting areas.

46. Egyptian Mau

Egyptian Mau cat sitting in grass
  • Scientific Name: Felis catus
  • Habitat: Domesticated
  • Size: 6 to 15 pounds
  • Diet: Domestic cat food

Egyptian Maus are descended from African wildcats. In fact, the term “mau” means “cat” in Egyptian Arabic. They are long, strong cats that can run up to 30 miles per hour. While there are many purebreds of these cats in Egypt, it’s rare to find Egyptian Maus that aren’t mixed breeds in other countries. Most cats are only pregnant for 58 to 67 days, but this breed has a longer than normal pregnancy at about 73 days.

47. Egyptian Mongoose

Egyptian mongoose standing on rocks
  • Scientific Name: Herpestes ichneumon
  • Habitat: Areas near trees and water in Africa
  • Size: 4 to 8 pounds
  • Diet: Fish, rodents, birds, eggs

Egyptian mongooses are thought to be immune to snake poisoning because they often kill snakes, but they aren’t immune. Instead, they have lightning-fast reflexes that can help them dodge snake attacks and stun snakes long enough to kill them. These mongooses have been around for a long time, appearing in Egyptian paintings from 300 B.C. They were considered holy animals, likely because people admired them for being stealthy.

48. El Oro Parakeet

El Oro Parakeet in a tree
  • Scientific Name: Pyrrhura orcesi
  • Habitat: In the Andes of southwestern Ecuador
  • Size: 8.6 inches long
  • Diet: Fruit, seeds

El Oro parakeets are very rare and endangered, only living in a small area of Ecuador. The Buenaventura Reserve is the only protected area for these birds. Habitat loss is the biggest cause of this species’ decline. They usually live in flocks of four to 12 birds, and they seek out food in the canopies of forests. They’re a very social species, and birds often help out other breeding pairs when producing and caring for eggs.

49. Eld’s Deer

Male eld's deer laying down
  • Scientific Name: Rucervus eldii
  • Habitat: Across southern Asia
  • Size: 275 to 375 pounds
  • Diet: Grass, fruit, wetland plants

In the wild, Eld’s deer commonly stay in areas that are seasonally burned so they can feed on the fresh grass that sprouts after. They’re most active at night, and they spend most of their time awake foraging. Males usually live alone outside of breeding season while females live with each other and young deer. These mammals migrate for short periods to ensure that they always have water accessible to them. They’re considered endangered because humans hunt them for their large antlers.

50. Electric Eel

Electric eel peeking out
  • Scientific Name: Electrophorus Electricus
  • Habitat: Murky water across northern South America
  • Size: About 8 feet long, 45 pounds
  • Diet: Crabs, shrimp, fish

The electric eel isn’t considered a “true eel,” but instead, it’s part of the knife fish family. They’re more closely related to a catfish than other eels. These creatures have several organs in their bodies that can set off an electric shock if they need to attack. They use the shock to help them capture prey, but they may also shock when threatened. The shock itself will rarely kill a human, but it could stun a person long enough to cause them to drown.

51. Elegant Tern

Elegant tern in the water
  • Scientific Name: Thalasseus elegans
  • Habitat: Coastal areas of California and Mexico
  • Size: 15 to 17 inches
  • Diet: Small fish, crustaceans

Elegant terns can be found along rocky areas of the Pacific Coast. They have white and gray feathers with a vibrant orange beak and black head. These birds live in large groups to protect themselves, and they can use their sharp beaks to fight off predators. While they can usually fly away from predators, their species is near threatened because overfishing from humans often limits their food supply.

52. Eleonora’s Falcon

Eleonora's falcon close-up
  • Scientific Name: Falco eleonorae
  • Habitat: Across southern Europe and northern Africa
  • Size: 15 to 18 inches
  • Diet: Insects, small birds

These falcons primarily hunt down flying prey that they can catch in mid-air, such as insects, small birds, and possibly bats. Sometimes, they’ll store dead prey to save it for later, but scientists have also seen them storing live prey to keep it fresh. The falcons pluck the wings of stored live animals to ensure they don’t escape. They usually hide the prey in holes and crevices near their nest, and they’re the only bird species known to do this.

53. Elephant Hawk-Moth

Elephant hawk moth on building
  • Scientific Name: Deilephila elpenor
  • Habitat: A wide range of habitats in the British Isles
  • Size: 2.4 to 2.8 inches long
  • Diet: Honeysuckles, bedstraws, willowherbs, other plants

These beautiful gold-and-pink moths are nocturnal and are most commonly seen at dusk. They get their name because as caterpillars, they resemble an elephant’s trunk. The caterpillars have large eyespots that can swell up to scare away predators. The bright colors of the moth can trick other animals into thinking they’re dangerous, but they’re not poisonous at all. However, some predators may use bright colors to attract these moths toward them.

54. Elf Owl

Elf owl relaxing on branch
  • Scientific Name: Micrathene whitneyi
  • Habitat: Woodlands and deserts of Mexico and southwestern United States
  • Size: 4.9 to 5.6 inches long
  • Diet: Insects, mice, small lizards

As the name implies, elf owls are the smallest owls in the world. They’re less aggressive than other owls, so they’re more likely to fly away than pick a fight. When threatened, they may play dead until the predator passes. They may also create loud sounds to make predators think they’re bigger than they are. Elf owls prefer to inhabit burrows that are already made, such as old woodpecker holes. They prefer to stay in nests 10 to 30 feet above the ground to keep them safe from land-dwelling predators, such as snakes, coyotes, and bobcats.

55. Elk

Elk in the woods
  • Scientific Name: Cervus canadensis
  • Habitat: Forests and mountain meadows in North America and central to northern Asia
  • Size: 500 to 800 pounds
  • Diet: Grass, leaves, shrubs

Elks are primarily herbivores, and they each eat about 20 pounds of plants every day. Male elks have a unique call that sounds like a mix of roaring and whistling, which results in bugling. The male’s bugling reaches 4000 Hz. Elks are more social than similar mammal species because they live in groups of up to 400 elk. The males and females usually break off into separate groups when it’s not mating season. Male elks are called bulls while females are known as cows.

56. Elongated Tortoise

Elongated tortoise on the dirt
  • Scientific Name: Indotestudo elongata
  • Habitat: Tropical forests across Asia
  • Size: Up to 7 pounds
  • Diet: Vegetables, flowers, fruit

Elongated tortoises are often kept as pets due to their small size. Like similar species, they’re slow, gentle tortoises that don’t move faster than one mile per hour. They only grow up to 14 inches long, and the females are usually larger than the males. The females also have longer claws so they can dig in the ground to create nests. While their shells are sturdy, they’re also sensitive to the touch.

57. Ember Tetra

Ember tetra swimming
  • Scientific Name: Hyphessobrycon amandae
  • Habitat: Araguaia River basin in Brazil
  • Size: About 0.8 inches long
  • Diet: Plants, small invertebrates

Like other tetras, ember tetras are commonly kept as pets. They can be distinguished by their bright orange scales. They thrive when living with other small schooling fish, especially other tetras, but they may become stressed if there are bigger fish in the tank. They’re curious fish that like to explore the space around them, so they should have plenty of room to move around in their tank. They’re very similar to neon tetras, which are brighter in color.

58. Emerald Catfish

Emerald catfish at bottom of aquarium
  • Scientific Name: Corydoras splendens
  • Habitat: Amazon Basin
  • Size: Up to 3 inches long
  • Diet: Insects, worms, plankton

The emerald catfish, also known as the emerald green cory, is a tropical fish that can be kept as a pet. Despite the name, these fish don’t always appear emerald. Depending on how the light shines on them, they might look metallic green, blue-green, or blue. These small catfish are peaceful and shy but are most content when kept with a few other fish of the same species. In the wild, you’ll usually find them in shallow, muddy water.

59. Emerald Toucanet

Emerald toucanet with blurred background
  • Scientific Name: Aulacorhynchus prasinus
  • Habitat: Higher elevation forests of Mexico, Costa Rica, and Panama
  • Size: 11 to 13 inches long
  • Diet: Insects, fruits, lizards, eggs

Emerald toucanets can be found in humid forests of elevations between 3,000 and 10,000 feet. They form small flocks of less than ten birds, and one bird serves as the leader. The leader guides the other birds in search of food and nests. While the bird’s feathers and beak are vibrantly colored, they’re still able to hide from prey among the bright green vegetation in forests.

60. Emerald Tree Monitor

Emerald tree monitor climbing
  • Scientific Name: Varanus prasinus
  • Habitat: Rainforests of New Guinea and surrounding islands
  • Size: About 3 feet long
  • Diet: Rodents, insects, worms

Emerald tree monitors are the only monitors with a tail that’s capable of grabbing onto objects. Thus, these reptiles spend most of their time in trees. They eat all kinds of small animals, especially insects. When females lay their eggs, they often use termite mounds for nests. Termite mounds have ideal conditions for incubating the reptile eggs. Then, when the young monitors hatch, they can feed on the termites and termite eggs.

61. Emperor Penguin

Group of emperor penguins
  • Scientific Name: Aptenodytes forsteri
  • Habitat: Compact sea ice of Antarctica
  • Size: 49 to 99 pounds
  • Diet: Fish, squid, krill

Emperor penguins are the largest known penguin species, and they’re also one of the largest of all bird species. These birds never set foot on land, but instead, they live their lives on thick sea ice. They live on ice so they can easily access the water for prey. These penguins usually dive as far as 600 feet into the water. They live in large colonies that consist of thousands of birds. When a mating pair has an egg or chick to care for, the male and female take turns keeping them warm. The female goes to find food first, and males can go for up to 110 days without food during that time.

62. Emperor Tamarin

Emperor tamarin in tree
  • Scientific Name: Saguinus Imperator
  • Habitat: Wooded habitats of northern South America
  • Size: 7.7 to 32 ounces
  • Diet: Fruit, insects, leaves

Emperor tamarins are believed to have earned their names for have a mustache similar to Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany. These small mammals have dark fur everywhere except for the long, white fur around their mouths that resemble facial hair. They usually travel in groups of up to 20 tamarins, and they’re led by an elderly female in the group. To communicate with each other, they use a series of sounds, such as chirping and hissing.

63. Emu

Emu face close-up
  • Scientific Name: Dromaius novaehollandiae
  • Habitat: Open grasslands of Australia
  • Size: 70 to 90 pounds, 5 to 6 feet tall
  • Diet: Seeds, fruits, flowers

Emus are the largest birds in Australia, and they’re often compared to ostriches. Even though they have wings, they’re unable to fly due to a lack of strong pectoral muscles. Luckily, they can run fast instead, reaching up to 31 miles per hour. They also have long strides at about 9 feet each. Emus can let out a distinctive call if they need to alert other emus, and the call can be heard up to a mile away. They can give a powerful kick to protect themselves if needed.

64. English Cocker Spaniel

English cocker spaniel sitting in garden
  • Scientific Name: Canis familiaris
  • Habitat: Domesticated
  • Size: 26 to 35 pounds
  • Diet: Domestic dog food

This English breed was initially known as the “Cocking Spaniel” because it was great at hunting woodcock. These dogs were bred to be great hunting dogs, but today, they’re more beloved for their beautiful coats and friendly personalities. English Cocker Spaniels are usually loyal dogs that get along with all humans they meet. Yet, their hunting background makes them more susceptible to barking and chasing.

65. English Sole

English sole close-up
  • Scientific Name: Parophrys vetulus
  • Habitat: From the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands to Baja California
  • Size: Up to 3.3 pounds and 2 feet
  • Diet: Crustaceans, worms, clam siphons

English soles have a distinct appearance with a flat body and both eyes on the same side of their head. The females can grow larger and live about four years longer than the males. The females can also release 150,000 to 2 million eggs at a time, depending on their size. They are often caught and eaten by fishermen to help control their population. However, regulations put in place to protect other bottom-dwelling species have decreased the number of soles hunted each year.

66. Equatorial Saki

Equatorial saki in the trees
  • Scientific Name: Pithecia aequatorialis
  • Habitat: Forests near water in northeastern Peru and Ecuador
  • Size: 4 to 5.5 pounds
  • Diet: Fruits, seeds, nuts

Not many details are known about the equatorial saki, and even the exact location range is uncertain. These primates are most active during the day, and 90% of their diets consist of fruits. However, they will also eat seeds, nuts, and insects if available. They most commonly hang out in trees near swamps or rivers. They spend most of their time in small groups of two to four, but they will occasionally meet up with other groups too.

67. Equatorial Spitting Cobra

Equatorial spitting cobra laying on rock
  • Scientific Name: Naja sumatrana
  • Habitat: Tropical forests in southeast Asia nations
  • Size: 3 to 4 feet long
  • Diet: Rodents, frogs, lizards, small snakes

The equatorial spitting cobra goes by many names, including the golden spitting cobra and the black spitting cobra. It can spray venom up to five feet away if it feels threatened, and it has a hood that’s made of ribs. While these reptiles prefer to live in tropical forests, many have adapted to live in gardens and parks too. They’ll rarely attack humans unprovoked, but it’s always a good idea to keep a distance. While many humans are scared of them, they’re great at controlling the rat population.

68. Ermine

Ermine in the snow
  • Scientific Name: Mustela erminea
  • Habitat: Woodlands of the upper Northern Hemisphere
  • Size: 2 to 4 ounces
  • Diet: Voles, shrews, mice

Ermines might be little and cute, but they’re actually ferocious predators. They have sharp teeth and claws that allow them to capture smaller mammals, but they can also use their claws to scare off large predators. They’re very territorial and may steal territories from other animals. A single ermine can have a territory of 25 to 100 acres. They have thick coats that protect them from the harsh temperatures of the Arctic. However, humans in 15th century Europe also used their coats as a sign of power and status.

69. Ethiopian Wolf

Ethiopian wolf walking through plants
  • Scientific Name: Canis simensis
  • Habitat: Mountains of Ethiopia
  • Size: 30 to 40 pounds
  • Diet: Rodents, hares, young antelope

These wolves are the rarest members of the canine family, and they’re the only wolves that live in Africa. They’re currently endangered with a population of less than 500. They live in groups of up to 18 canines, and they patrol the territory together at regular times each days. The dominant male and female of the packs are the only ones that reproduce. Since these canines much smaller than most other wolf species, they’re able to sneak up on prey easier and grab small mammals out of their burrows.

70. Euler’s Flycatcher

Euler's flycatcher perched
  • Scientific Name: Lathrotriccus euleri
  • Habitat: Humid lowland forests of South America
  • Size: About 5 inches long
  • Diet: Beetles, ants, cicadas

Even though these tiny birds have a large range across South America, they’re uncommon to spot. They have solid brown feathers, but they can be distinguished by the two bars of lighter brown on their wings. They create their nests out of grass, and they lay eggs that are almost completely white except for a reddish-brown tint at the larger end. Their unmistakable call sounds like “chee-chi-wee-wee-wee.”

71. Eurasian Beaver

Eurasian beaver in wetlands
  • Scientific Name: Castor fiber
  • Habitat: Near lakes and ponds in Scandinavia, Germany, France, Poland, and Russia
  • Size: 47 to 51 pounds
  • Diet: Woody vegetation

Eurasian beavers were once hunted almost to the point of extinction, but their population has grown since then. Humans desired their castoreum, which comes from the beaver’s castor sac, as a flavoring agent. These beavers are the largest rodent species in Europe, and like American beavers, they build dams. The dams they create provide water sources for other animals. Thus, these beavers are “keystone” animals, meaning they’re essential for a healthy ecosystem.

72. Eurasian Collared Dove

Eurasian collared dove looking over shoulder
  • Scientific Name: Streptopelia decaocto
  • Habitat: Across the United States and Mexico
  • Size: 12 to 14 inches long
  • Diet: Seeds, grains, berries

Even though the Eurasian collared dove didn’t originate in North America, that’s where the species thrives today. They made their way to the United States after some of the birds escaped from a pet shop during a burglary in the Bahamas. The shop owner released about 50 more doves afterward, and they made their way to the southern United States. These birds can be distinguished from other doves due to the collar-like black line on their necks. They’re one of the only bird species that can drink with their heads facing down rather than scooping up water and tilting their heads back.

73. Eurasian Eagle-Owl

Eurasian Eagle-Owl sitting on branch
  • Scientific Name: Bubo bubo
  • Habitat: Across the Palearctic ecoregion
  • Size: About 5.9 pounds, 5 to 7 foot wingspan
  • Diet: Small mammals, woodpeckers, amphibians, fish

These massive owls soar using strong, shallow wingbeats to glide up to 31 miles per hour. You can hardly hear their wings moving when they fly. They usually stay in one area and defend the same territory their whole lives. If they feel threatened, they may click their bills, spit, or get into a defensive stance with ruffled feathers. Like similar species, they can’t move their eyes, so instead, they can rotate their heads up to 270 degrees to see their surroundings.

74. Eurasian Golden Oriole

Eurasian Golden Orioles with chicks
  • Scientific Name: Oriolus oriolus
  • Habitat: Across Europe
  • Size: 9 to 10 inches long
  • Diet: Insects, fruit, seeds, nectar

The Eurasian golden oriole, also simply known as the golden oriole, varies in color between males and females. Males have vibrant yellow feathers that stand out next to the trees while females have dull gray and yellow feathers, allowing them to hide better. These birds use whistles when casually communicating with each other, but they will also let out alarm calls if they feel threatened. These beautiful birds can sometimes be considered pests because they consume lots of fruit.

75. Eurasian Jay

Eurasian jay perched on branch
  • Scientific Name: Garrulus glandarius
  • Habitat: Across Europe, northern Africa, and central Asia
  • Size: 13 to 14 inches
  • Diet: Fruit, nuts, grains, worms, insects

Eurasian jays have an important role in the environment because they often bury acorns to save for later. If they never come back for the acorns, those acorns might grow into trees that will help regenerate the forests. One jay will bury between 4,500 and 11,000 acorns a year. They can remember the locations of the acorns for up to 10 months. These birds have unique color patterns on their wings that can reflect ultraviolet light that’s not visible to the human eye. Scientists believe the reflection plays a role in the species’ mating rituals.

76. Eurasian Lynx

Eurasian lynx sitting still
  • Scientific Name: Lynx lynx
  • Habitat: Forests and mountains across Eurasia
  • Size: 40 to 80 pounds
  • Diet: Rabbits, deer, elk, rodents

These agile cats rarely live near humans because they need lots of space to hunt. They’re suspected to be very fast, possibly reaching up to 40 miles per hour. They help control the deer and goat populations, especially in areas where human hunters aren’t present. Eurasian lynxes were once close to extinction because humans hunted them for their soft fur, but now their population is no longer threatened. They’re solitary mammals that can defend over 100 miles of territory on their own.

77. Eurasian Nuthatch

Eurasian nuthatch holding seed
  • Scientific Name: Sitta europaea
  • Habitat: Woodlands in parts of Europe and Asia
  • Size: 2 to 3 inches
  • Diet: Nuts, insects

Eurasian nuthatches are agile little birds that can fly up to 13 miles per hour. They can be distinguished by the high-pitched sound they make, which sounds similar to a toy horn. They have long, narrow beaks that help them capture insects in the crevices of trees. They can also hide nuts they find in crevices to save them for later.

78. Eurasian Otter

Eurasian otter on rocks
  • Scientific Name: Lutra lutra
  • Habitat: Lakes, rivers, and streams of Europe and Asia
  • Size: 15 to 26 pounds
  • Diet: Fish, crabs, eggs

Eurasian otters are just as comfortable on land as they are in the water, but they always like to hang out near bodies of water. Despite being cute and fluffy, they’re highly territorial. One otter may occupy up to four miles of land. Like other otters, they also have a playful side, so you might see them galloping or sliding around on mud banks and piles of snow. Sadly, this species’ population is near threatened because of poaching and habitat loss.

79. Eurasian Wolf

Eurasian wolf close-up
  • Scientific Name: Canis lupus lupus
  • Habitat: Across mountain and plains of Asia and western Europe
  • Size: 86 to 174 pounds
  • Diet: Deer, moose, wild boar, wild goats

Eurasian wolves are also known as Russian forest wolves or common wolves. They hunt a wide variety of mammals, which sometimes includes livestock. So, they have sadly been hunted to extinction in many countries to protect domesticated animals. These wolves usually travel in packs of seven, and only the alpha male and female of the pack can reproduce. The alphas will harass the other wolves to make sure they don’t mate.

80. European Badger

European badger in the grass
  • Scientific Name: Meles meles
  • Habitat: Woodlands across Europe
  • Size: 15 to 29 pounds
  • Diet: Worms, slugs, fruit, small mammals

European badgers usually gather in family groups of up to 12. The families build large, communal burrows. The burrows they create can remain for centuries. These mammals also create shallow pits at the edge of their territory to use as communal bathrooms. They spend most of the day underground and then come out to hunt at night. Since they’re great at digging, they often eat the grubs that they find just below the surface.

81. European Bee-Eater

European bee-eater holding dragonfly
  • Scientific Name: Merops apiaster
  • Habitat: Grasslands in areas of Europe, Africa, and Asia
  • Size: 1.5 to 3 ounces
  • Diet: Bees, hornets, other insects

European bee-eaters have feathers that contain almost every color of the rainbow. As the name implies, their diet consists of mostly flying insects like bees. One bird can consume up to 250 bees a day. Before they eat the bees, they use force to remove the stingers so they don’t get hurt. One of the most unique habits of this species is that they build their nests in burrows. However, their burrowing habits make them more susceptible to parasites than other birds are.

82. European Conger

European conger eel hiding
  • Scientific Name: Conger conger
  • Habitat: In the eastern Atlantic Ocean
  • Size: 5 to 7 feet long
  • Diet: Fish, crabs, shrimp, worms

The European conger eel is the largest conger eel species, and the largest recorded one reached nine feet long! They behave similarly to moray eels because they hide in holes among rocks during the day. Then, they come out to hunt at night. They will eat just about anything they can find, including carrion. They’ve also been known to attack humans, so divers need to keep a distance.

83. European Corn Borer

European corn borer on leaf
  • Scientific Name: Ostrinia Nubilalis
  • Habitat: Across some areas of North America and Europe
  • Size: 1 to 1.2 inches
  • Diet: Corn and other crop plants

These moths are native to Europe but have since been introduced to the United States. These insects are considered pests because the caterpillars spend their time inside the stems of crops. They eat through the plants and damage the plants. Then, once the caterpillars become moths, they continue to feed on crops. European corn borers feed on plants year-round, and if it’s too cold, they’ll stay in their pupal stage for longer than usual.

84. European Earwig

European earwig on branch
  • Scientific Name: Forficula auricularia
  • Habitat: Dark, moist places in Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa
  • Size: 13 to 16 millimeters long
  • Diet: Aphids, spiders, caterpillars, lead beetle eggs

While European earwigs primarily feed on other tiny animals, they can also damage crops by consuming some leaves and fruits. They’re nocturnal, so they spend the daytime hiding in dark crevices. The weather will determine how active they are at night because they’re most likely to come out during stable temperatures. After European earwig eggs hatch, the females continue to guard the nymphs and give them food.

85. European Ground Squirrel

European ground squirrel by flowers
  • Scientific Name: Spermophilus citellus
  • Habitat: Across eastern Europe and parts of Asia
  • Size: 8.5 to 12 ounces
  • Diet: Grass, flowers, seeds, insects

European ground squirrels are small, but they have powerful legs with sharp claws to help them dig. They create a branching system of tunnels up to 6.5 feet underground. During the winter months, they close the burrow exits and hibernate. They spend half the day foraging and the other half exploring. If they sense danger, they’ll let out a shrill sound to alert other ground squirrels. They may also make a series of chirping and growling sounds to communicate with each other.

86. European Pine Marten

European pine marten on tree trunk
  • Scientific Name: Martes martes
  • Habitat: From western Europe to western Siberia
  • Size: 2 to 4.5 pounds
  • Diet: Small mammals, birds, insects, carrion

European pine martens may look adorable, but they can be fierce. They hunt at night, so during the day, they usually hide in hollow trees or abandoned nests. They’ll often eat whatever they can find, which is a mix of plants and animals. They spend most of their time alone, and they will mark their territory by depositing feces around the edge. These mammals were once common across Europe, but their populations have decreased because humans hunt them for fur and predator control.

87. European Plaice

European plaice on sea floor
  • Scientific Name: Pleuronectes platessa
  • Habitat: From the Barents Sea to the Mediterranean
  • Size: Up to 3.3 feet long
  • Diet: Crustaceans, worms, bivalves

The European plaice is a flatfish that’s distinguished by its brown body and orange spots. It stays along sandy or muddy sea floors near Europe, living anywhere from 32 to 656 feet below sea level. So, these fish feed on almost any tiny, bottom-dwelling creatures they can find. They’re not great at swimming long-distance, but they will travel between their feeding area and mating grounds. These fish don’t reach full maturity until they’re about 4 years old.

88. European Polecat

European polecat in log
  • Scientific Name: Mustela putorius
  • Habitat: Near marshes in northern Africa and western Eurasia
  • Size: 2 to 3 pounds, 1 to 1.5 feet long
  • Diet: Rodents, rabbits, lizards

European polecats are related to ferrets, weasels, and minks. Like similar species, they may look cute, but they’re strong predators. The mask-like pattern on their face resembles a raccoon’s face. When threatened, these mammals can use their anal glands to create a foul smell to scare off predators. So, they’re rarely hunted down by other animals. Polecats usually hunt alone at night, and they often occupy old dens from foxes and badgers rather than making their own.

89. European Pond Turtle

European pond turtle
  • Scientific Name: Emys orbicularis
  • Habitat: Wetlands across Europe
  • Size: About 2.2 pounds
  • Diet: Fish, snails, frogs, insects

European pond turtles spend most of their time in or near the water, but they’ve been spotted up to 2.5 miles away from water. They usually live in small groups, and they’ll bask in the sun together on logs during warm days. If they sense danger, they’ll immediately slide off the log into aquatic vegetation to hide. They’re able to stay underwater for hours at a time if needed. In the winter, they will bury themselves in mud to hibernate.

90. European Robin

European robin sitting on branch
  • Scientific Name: Erithacus rubecula
  • Habitat: Across Europe, Asia, and northern Africa
  • Size: 4.9 to 5.5 inches
  • Diet: Insects, spiders, worms

European robins are considered feistier than American robins, but sadly, they have a lot of threats. Many of these robins only live about a year because of predators, human hunters, and parasites. However, 10% of their deaths are caused by other European robins because these birds are solitary and highly territorial. They’re a noisy species that sings a beautiful song at dawn. They sing all year except for when they’re molting.

91. European Sea Sturgeon

European sea sturgeon swimming
  • Scientific Name: Acipenser sturio
  • Habitat: The Gironde-Garonne-Dordogne basin in France
  • Size: 4 to 20 feet
  • Diet: Polychaete worms, crustaceans

This sturgeon’s population used to be abundant in Europe, but now, less than 800 of these fish remain. Bycatch, pollution, climate change, and predation are all contributing to the decline of these fish, but humans are working on restoring the population. It may take 30 to 50 years to recover the species. These sturgeons can survive in saltwater and freshwater. They spend most of their time in saltwater, but they usually migrate to freshwater to reproduce.

92. European Snow Vole

European snow vole curled up
  • Scientific Name: Chionomys nivalis
  • Habitat: Mountainous areas of Europe and southwestern Asia
  • Size: 1 to 2 ounces
  • Diet: Grass, other plants

Unlike other small mammals, female snow voles are more aggressive than males. All the voles have their own territories, but females are more likely to attack others of their species. These voles likely have aggressive behaviors because they need to compete for food in their harsh environment. They can be active both day and night, and they dig tunnels but don’t hibernate. When these voles mate, they often have several partners at a time.

93. European Tree Frog

European tree frog clinging to plant
  • Scientific Name: Hyla arborea
  • Habitat: Damp areas of Europe and western Asia
  • Size: 1.3 to 2 inches
  • Diet: Spiders, flies, beetles, caterpillars

European tree frogs are one of only two tree frog species in Europe. They have special sticky pads on their toes that help them climb trees. Like many other frog species, they’re most active at night, especially if it’s raining. They eat a wide range of invertebrates, but they prefer to hunt flying insects because they can use their powerful back legs to pounce at the prey.

94. European Wildcat

European wildcat hiding in flowers
  • Scientific Name: Felis catus silvestris
  • Habitat: Forests in some areas of Europe
  • Size: 8 to 18 pounds
  • Diet: Rodents, rabbits, hares

European wildcats might look like a housecat, but they’re their own species. These felines are closely related to the European common shorthair cat, but they’re larger, not domesticated, and have different genes. While other types of feral cats often live with groups of other felines, European wildcats spend most of their time alone. It’s possible for them to crossbreed with domesticated cats, but breeding the two species is harmful to the purebred wildcat population.

95. Eversmann’s Redstart

Eversmann's Redstart by cherry blossoms
  • Scientific Name: Phoenicurus erythronotus
  • Habitat: Woodlands of central Asia
  • Size: 5.9 to 6.2 inches long
  • Diet: Insects, fruit, seeds

Eversmann’s redstart is also commonly known as the rufous-backed redstart. These birds only migrate short distances, staying in high altitudes between 5,000 and 11,500 feet. During mating season, the females build the nests alone. They place the nests on the ground within rock crevices. The males typically do not help care for the eggs or young birds until the juveniles reach about 16 days old.

96. Eyelash Viper

Eyelash viper on flower
  • Scientific Name: Bothriechis schlegelii
  • Habitat: Dense forests of Mexico, Central America, and northern South America
  • Size: 22 to 32 inches long
  • Diet: Small mammals, birds, lizards, frogs

This reptile is often called the eyelash viper because of the eyelash-like scales above its eyes. These snakes are one of the few reptiles that give birth to live young. Eyelash vipers carry their eggs internally for about six months before the snakelets are born. Then, the young snakes can live independently as early as day one. While these vipers aren’t typically aggressive, they’re highly venomous. Even dead eyelash vipers can still release venom for up to 90 minutes.

97. Eyespot Pufferfish

Eyespot pufferfish face
  • Scientific Name: Tetraodon biocellatus
  • Habitat: Freshwater of southeast Asia
  • Size: About 3 inches long
  • Diet: Crustaceans, mollusks

The eyespot pufferfish, also known as the figure 8 pufferfish, cannot breed in captivity. So, while some people keep them as pets, it may not be a good idea, especially for new fish keepers. These freshwater fish are capable of surviving in saltwater if necessary. Their kidneys and gills will become modified when exposed to saltwater to help them thrive. Like similar species, these fish can inflate their bodies when they’re stressed.

98. Eyestripe Surgeonfish

Eyestripe surgeonfish in aquarium
  • Scientific Name: Acanthurus dussumieri
  • Habitat: Tropical and sub-tropical areas of the Indian and western Pacific oceans
  • Size: 14 to 21 inches long
  • Diet: Algae, detritus

These fish get their name because they have a yellow stripe around their eyes and sharp spines on both sides of their tails that resemble a surgeon’s scalpel. They can be aggressive and territorial toward fish of the same or similar species. While they don’t have any poison, they can cause penetrating wounds to creatures that touch their spines. They’re beneficial to a reef environment because they will feed on algae and similar organisms.

99. Ezo Salamander

Ezo salamander on tree bark
  • Scientific Name: Hynobius retardatus
  • Habitat: Across Japan
  • Size: 4.5 to 7.8 inches long
  • Diet: Worms, snails

Ezo salamanders can only be found in Japan. From a distance, they might look like a solid brown color, but if you look closer, you’ll see beautiful specks of gold. While adult salamanders seek out small invertebrates, their larvae mostly eat small tadpoles of other amphibian species. When prey is scarce, they may even attempt to eat others of their kind. While the populations are currently thriving, humans taking them out of the wild and invasive species eating them may cause them to decline in the future.

Never Stop Learning!

E is only one letter of 26, so imagine how many animals exist if you look at the entire alphabet. No matter how much you love animals, there will always be some amazing creatures that you’ve never heard about. Thus, it’s always great to learn about more of the incredible animals that we share this planet with.